Official Repository

Last pushed: a month ago
Short Description
MariaDB is a community-developed fork of MySQL intended to remain free under the GNU GPL.
Full Description

Supported tags and respective Dockerfile links

For more information about this image and its history, please see the relevant manifest file (library/mariadb). This image is updated via pull requests to the docker-library/official-images GitHub repo.

For detailed information about the virtual/transfer sizes and individual layers of each of the above supported tags, please see the repos/mariadb/tag-details.md file in the docker-library/repo-info GitHub repo.

What is MariaDB?

MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL relational database management system intended to remain free under the GNU GPL. Being a fork of a leading open source software system, it is notable for being led by the original developers of MySQL, who forked it due to concerns over its acquisition by Oracle. Contributors are required to share their copyright with the MariaDB Foundation.

The intent is also to maintain high compatibility with MySQL, ensuring a "drop-in" replacement capability with library binary equivalency and exact matching with MySQL APIs and commands. It includes the XtraDB storage engine for replacing InnoDB, as well as a new storage engine, Aria, that intends to be both a transactional and non-transactional engine perhaps even included in future versions of MySQL.

wikipedia.org/wiki/MariaDB

How to use this image

Start a mariadb server instance

Starting a MariaDB instance is simple:

$ docker run --name some-mariadb -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mariadb:tag

... where some-mariadb is the name you want to assign to your container, my-secret-pw is the password to be set for the MySQL root user and tag is the tag specifying the MySQL version you want. See the list above for relevant tags.

Connect to MySQL from an application in another Docker container

Since MariaDB is intended as a drop-in replacement for MySQL, it can be used with many applications. This image exposes the standard MySQL port (3306), so container linking makes the MySQL instance available to other application containers. Start your application container like this in order to link it to the MySQL container:

$ docker run --name some-app --link some-mariadb:mysql -d application-that-uses-mysql

Connect to MariaDB from the MySQL command line client

The following command starts another mariadb container instance and runs the mysql command line client against your original mariadb container, allowing you to execute SQL statements against your database instance:

$ docker run -it --link some-mariadb:mysql --rm mariadb sh -c 'exec mysql -h"$MYSQL_PORT_3306_TCP_ADDR" -P"$MYSQL_PORT_3306_TCP_PORT" -uroot -p"$MYSQL_ENV_MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD"'

... where some-mariadb is the name of your original mariadb container.

This image can also be used as a client for non-Docker or remote MariaDB instances:

$ docker run -it --rm mariadb mysql -hsome.mysql.host -usome-mysql-user -p

More information about the MySQL command line client can be found in the MySQL documentation

Container shell access and viewing MySQL logs

The docker exec command allows you to run commands inside a Docker container. The following command line will give you a bash shell inside your mariadb container:

$ docker exec -it some-mariadb bash

The MariaDB Server log is available through Docker's container log:

$ docker logs some-mariadb

Using a custom MySQL configuration file

The MariaDB startup configuration is specified in the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf, and that file in turn includes any files found in the /etc/mysql/conf.d directory that end with .cnf. Settings in files in this directory will augment and/or override settings in /etc/mysql/my.cnf. If you want to use a customized MySQL configuration, you can create your alternative configuration file in a directory on the host machine and then mount that directory location as /etc/mysql/conf.d inside the mariadb container.

If /my/custom/config-file.cnf is the path and name of your custom configuration file, you can start your mariadb container like this (note that only the directory path of the custom config file is used in this command):

$ docker run --name some-mariadb -v /my/custom:/etc/mysql/conf.d -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mariadb:tag

This will start a new container some-mariadb where the MariaDB instance uses the combined startup settings from /etc/mysql/my.cnf and /etc/mysql/conf.d/config-file.cnf, with settings from the latter taking precedence.

Note that users on host systems with SELinux enabled may see issues with this. The current workaround is to assign the relevant SELinux policy type to your new config file so that the container will be allowed to mount it:

$ chcon -Rt svirt_sandbox_file_t /my/custom

Configuration without a cnf file

Many configuration options can be passed as flags to mysqld. This will give you the flexibility to customize the container without needing a cnf file. For example, if you want to change the default encoding and collation for all tables to use UTF-8 (utf8mb4) just run the following:

$ docker run --name some-mariadb -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mariadb:tag --character-set-server=utf8mb4 --collation-server=utf8mb4_unicode_ci

If you would like to see a complete list of available options, just run:

$ docker run -it --rm mariadb:tag --verbose --help

Environment Variables

When you start the mariadb image, you can adjust the configuration of the MariaDB instance by passing one or more environment variables on the docker run command line. Do note that none of the variables below will have any effect if you start the container with a data directory that already contains a database: any pre-existing database will always be left untouched on container startup.

MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD

This variable is mandatory and specifies the password that will be set for the MariaDB root superuser account. In the above example, it was set to my-secret-pw.

MYSQL_DATABASE

This variable is optional and allows you to specify the name of a database to be created on image startup. If a user/password was supplied (see below) then that user will be granted superuser access (corresponding to GRANT ALL) to this database.

MYSQL_USER, MYSQL_PASSWORD

These variables are optional, used in conjunction to create a new user and to set that user's password. This user will be granted superuser permissions (see above) for the database specified by the MYSQL_DATABASE variable. Both variables are required for a user to be created.

Do note that there is no need to use this mechanism to create the root superuser, that user gets created by default with the password specified by the MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD variable.

MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD

This is an optional variable. Set to yes to allow the container to be started with a blank password for the root user. NOTE: Setting this variable to yes is not recommended unless you really know what you are doing, since this will leave your MariaDB instance completely unprotected, allowing anyone to gain complete superuser access.

MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD

This is an optional variable. Set to yes to generate a random initial password for the root user (using pwgen). The generated root password will be printed to stdout (GENERATED ROOT PASSWORD: .....).

MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD

Sets root (not the user specified in MYSQL_USER!) user as expired once init is complete, forcing a password change on first login. NOTE: This feature is supported on MySQL 5.6+ only. Using this option on MySQL 5.5 will throw an appropriate error during initialization.

Initializing a fresh instance

When a container is started for the first time, a new database with the specified name will be created and initialized with the provided configuration variables. Furthermore, it will execute files with extensions .sh, .sql and .sql.gz that are found in /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d. Files will be executed in alphabetical order. You can easily populate your mariadb services by mounting a SQL dump into that directory and provide custom images with contributed data. SQL files will be imported by default to the database specified by the MYSQL_DATABASE variable.

Caveats

Where to Store Data

Important note: There are several ways to store data used by applications that run in Docker containers. We encourage users of the mariadb images to familiarize themselves with the options available, including:

  • Let Docker manage the storage of your database data by writing the database files to disk on the host system using its own internal volume management. This is the default and is easy and fairly transparent to the user. The downside is that the files may be hard to locate for tools and applications that run directly on the host system, i.e. outside containers.
  • Create a data directory on the host system (outside the container) and mount this to a directory visible from inside the container. This places the database files in a known location on the host system, and makes it easy for tools and applications on the host system to access the files. The downside is that the user needs to make sure that the directory exists, and that e.g. directory permissions and other security mechanisms on the host system are set up correctly.

The Docker documentation is a good starting point for understanding the different storage options and variations, and there are multiple blogs and forum postings that discuss and give advice in this area. We will simply show the basic procedure here for the latter option above:

  1. Create a data directory on a suitable volume on your host system, e.g. /my/own/datadir.
  2. Start your mariadb container like this:

    $ docker run --name some-mariadb -v /my/own/datadir:/var/lib/mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mariadb:tag
    

The -v /my/own/datadir:/var/lib/mysql part of the command mounts the /my/own/datadir directory from the underlying host system as /var/lib/mysql inside the container, where MySQL by default will write its data files.

Note that users on host systems with SELinux enabled may see issues with this. The current workaround is to assign the relevant SELinux policy type to the new data directory so that the container will be allowed to access it:

$ chcon -Rt svirt_sandbox_file_t /my/own/datadir

No connections until MySQL init completes

If there is no database initialized when the container starts, then a default database will be created. While this is the expected behavior, this means that it will not accept incoming connections until such initialization completes. This may cause issues when using automation tools, such as docker-compose, which start several containers simultaneously.

Usage against an existing database

If you start your mariadb container instance with a data directory that already contains a database (specifically, a mysql subdirectory), the $MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD variable should be omitted from the run command line; it will in any case be ignored, and the pre-existing database will not be changed in any way.

Creating database dumps

Most of the normal tools will work, although their usage might be a little convoluted in some cases to ensure they have access to the mysqld server. A simple way to ensure this is to use docker exec and run the tool from the same container, similar to the following:

$ docker exec some-mariadb sh -c 'exec mysqldump --all-databases -uroot -p"$MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD"' > /some/path/on/your/host/all-databases.sql

Supported Docker versions

This image is officially supported on Docker version 1.13.1.

Support for older versions (down to 1.6) is provided on a best-effort basis.

Please see the Docker installation documentation for details on how to upgrade your Docker daemon.

User Feedback

Issues

If you have any problems with or questions about this image, please contact us through a GitHub issue. If the issue is related to a CVE, please check for a cve-tracker issue on the official-images repository first.

You can also reach many of the official image maintainers via the #docker-library IRC channel on Freenode.

Contributing

You are invited to contribute new features, fixes, or updates, large or small; we are always thrilled to receive pull requests, and do our best to process them as fast as we can.

Before you start to code, we recommend discussing your plans through a GitHub issue, especially for more ambitious contributions. This gives other contributors a chance to point you in the right direction, give you feedback on your design, and help you find out if someone else is working on the same thing.

Documentation

Documentation for this image is stored in the mariadb/ directory of the docker-library/docs GitHub repo. Be sure to familiarize yourself with the repository's README.md file before attempting a pull request.

Docker Pull Command

Comments (19)
dadisgrat
a month ago

I'm trying to script some mysql client CLI commands to load the MariaDB container I've started. I run:

blah@blah:~$ MARIADB_IP_ADDRESS=$(sudo docker inspect mariadb_container --format="{{ .NetworkSettings.IPAddress }}")
blah@blah:~$ echo "$MARIADB_IP_ADDRESS"
172.17.121.2
blah@blah:~$

I can then address the container from the command line using the -h parameter:

mysql -h $MARIADB_IP_ADDRESS -u root -p

So far, so good.

But, when I run the same commands from a Bash script (trying to automate this process), I get:

ERROR 2003 (HY000): Can't connect to MySQL server on 172.17.121.2 (111)

Any ideas why this command wouldn't work in a Bash script but does work on the command line?

ygavhane
2 months ago

I have made some changes in my.cnf file after that the container is not starting anyway. i wanted to revert back the changes and start the container where it was left.
[root@linuxgeeks f62ead4e2f40570cc7ef4a356c4f7268e8c9f19e68b5e7172f8f4b474e02aa26]# docker start -ia mariadbtest

ERROR: mysqld failed while attempting to check config
command was: "mysqld --verbose --help --log-bin-index=/tmp/tmp.NOjdLGiwVV"
2017-01-02 10:06:42 140529797584832 [ERROR] mysqld: ambiguous option '--log=/var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log' (log-basename, log_tc_size)
2017-01-02 10:06:42 140529797584832 [ERROR] Aborting

stampycode
2 months ago

Thanks @grahamwalters for the docker-compose.yml example, here is a more complete one:

version: '2'
services:
  mydbcontainer:
    image: mariadb
    command: mysqld --innodb-buffer-pool-size=20M
    volumes:
      - "./mariadb:/var/lib/mysql:rw"
    environment:
      - "MYSQL_DATABASE=my_db_name"
      - "MYSQL_USER=my_db_user"
      - "MYSQL_PASSWORD=my_db_user_passwd"
      - "MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my_db_root_passwd"
    ports:
      - "3306:3306"
grahamwalters
3 months ago

"Many configuration options can be passed as flags to mysqld." In case anyone else gets stuck trying to get that to work with docker-compose.yml

version: '2'

services:
  mariadb:
    image: mariadb
    command: mysqld --innodb-buffer-pool-size=20M
    volumes:
      - mariadb:/var/lib/mysql
    environment:
      - MYSQL_DATABASE=DB
rstsnelson
4 months ago

Are you starting the bootstrap node with '--wsrep-new-cluster'? If not, the bootstrap node is starting without galera replication enabled which would cause additional nodes to not connect. Additionally make sure your 'wsrep_cluster_address' contains the reachable addresses for all of your nodes in case of failure on one node.

activatedgeek
4 months ago

I am facing "MySQL init process failed.". This happens when using the Galera replication on the second node (the bootstrap node starts fine). Here is a StackOverflow question as well http://stackoverflow.com/questions/39744949/unable-to-create-mariadb-galera-cluster

boistordu
6 months ago

Can I forward the port 3306 to another one without damaging the link to others containers which are linked to the database with the argument link ? (If I re-run them of course)

markz0r
7 months ago

Seems like the MYSQL_DATABASE does not create database on image startup (using docker-compose).
Works for mysql:latest but not mariadb:latest.

psitrax
a year ago

Still having ERROR:
TERM environment variable not set
when i exec into mysql

SOLUTION:
export TERM=dumb
or
ducker run -e TERM=dumb ...

port22
a year ago

Please define /run/mysqld/mysqld.sock as VOLUME so we can link the socket to other containers in which applications are stuck with 'localhost'.

btw I would suggest to just boot the mysqld without root password so everyone can set it afterwards (most will run longterm and automation makes it possible) because giving the mysql-root-pw via ENV is less secure.