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To run your docker with ant from Windows make sure you have mapped a disk drive to Docker for Windows,
lets assume you mapped drive D:\ and you placed build.xml to development folder (D:\development\build.xml),
now you can run your docker with next commands
docker run -it --rm -v d:/:/drive_d bbkudk/ant-salesforce ant -Dbasedir=/drive_d/development/ -f /drive_d/development/build.xml describeMetadata