MySQL is the world's most popular open source database. With its proven performance, reliability and ease-of-use, MySQL has become the leading database choice for web-based applications, covering the entire range from personal projects and websites, via e-commerce and information services, all the way to high profile web properties including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many more.
Starting a MySQL instance is simple
$ docker run --name some-mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mysql:tag
... where some-mysql is the name you want to assign to your container, my-secret-pw is the password to be set for the MySQL root user and tag is the tag specifying the MySQL version you want. See the list above for relevant tags.
Connect to MySQL from an application in another Docker container
This image exposes the standard MySQL port (3306), so container linking makes the MySQL instance available to other application containers. Start your application container like this in order to link it to the MySQL container:
$ docker run --name some-app --link some-mysql:mysql -d application-that-uses-mysql
Connect to MySQL from the MySQL command line client
The following command starts another mysql container instance and runs the mysql command line client against your original mysql container, allowing you to execute SQL statements against your database instance:
$ docker run -it --link some-mysql:mysql --rm mysql sh -c 'exec mysql -h"$MYSQL_PORT_3306_TCP_ADDR" -P"$MYSQL_PORT_3306_TCP_PORT" -uroot -p"$MYSQL_ENV_MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD"'
... where some-mysql is the name of your original mysql container.
This image can also be used as a client for non-Docker or remote MySQL instances
$ docker run -it --rm mysql mysql -hsome.mysql.host -usome-mysql-user -p
Container shell access and viewing MySQL logs
The docker exec command allows you to run commands inside a Docker container. The following command line will give you a bash shell inside your mysql container:
$ docker exec -it some-mysql bash
The MySQL Server log is available through Docker's container log
$ docker logs some-mysql
Using a custom MySQL configuration file
The MySQL startup configuration is specified in the file /etc/mysql/my.cnf, and that file in turn includes any files found in the /etc/mysql/conf.d directory that end with .cnf. Settings in files in this directory will augment and/or override settings in /etc/mysql/my.cnf. If you want to use a customized MySQL configuration, you can create your alternative configuration file in a directory on the host machine and then mount that directory location as /etc/mysql/conf.d inside the mysql container.
If /my/custom/config-file.cnf is the path and name of your custom configuration file, you can start your mysql container like this (note that only the directory path of the custom config file is used in this command):
$ docker run --name some-mysql -v /my/custom:/etc/mysql/conf.d -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mysql:tag
This will start a new container some-mysql where the MySQL instance uses the combined startup settings from /etc/mysql/my.cnf and /etc/mysql/conf.d/config-file.cnf, with settings from the latter taking precedence.
Note that users on host systems with SELinux enabled may see issues with this. The current workaround is to assign the relevant SELinux policy type to your new config file so that the container will be allowed to mount it:
$ chcon -Rt svirt_sandbox_file_t /my/custom
Configuration without a cnf file
Many configuration options can be passed as flags to mysqld. This will give you the flexibility to customize the container without needing a cnf file. For example, if you want to change the default encoding and collation for all tables to use UTF-8 (utf8mb4) just run the following:
$ docker run --name some-mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=my-secret-pw -d mysql:tag --character-set-server=utf8mb4 --collation-server=utf8mb4_unicode_ci
If you would like to see a complete list of available options, just run:
$ docker run -it --rm mysql:tag --verbose --help
More information about the MySQL command line client can be found in the MySQL documentation.