A Docker image to backup files, databases, etc. using Btrfs for snapshots. It uses the btr-backup scripts written by me.
The idea of this image is a consistent environment that backs up the configured stuff and then exits. There are no tools like
cron installed. I believe that the host operating system needs to schedule the jobs and control that they start, run and end OK.
The presumed initial situation is as follows: One has a more or less complex hierarchy of Docker containers running, that constitute an application. E.g. a "web" container, a linked "database" container and a connected data-only volume
that holds persistent data.
All variable or configuration data is either inside the database or inside a volume container ... otherwise one should reread the base ideas of containerization.
In order to run a backup job, six "steps" are necessary:
Connect Btrfs backup medium to container's /backup
/backup is exposed to the host operating system and this is where the backup is written to. It is expected that this directory is linked to a Btrfs filesystem attached to the host operating system.
Example (external USB hard drive):
docker run -d --volume /media/backup:/backup [...] dinkel/backup
The backup script makes sure that the list of snapshots is kept to a reasonable size, by deleting older snapshots (it keeps the 12 latest, 12 latest "daily", 12 latest "monthly" and all "yearly" snapshots). Deleting Btrfs snapshots inside a container is normally forbidden. In order to allow this, I found a brute solution by starting the container with the
--privileged option, like so:
docker run -d --privileged --volume /media/backup:/backup [...] dinkel/backup
There quite probably exist more suptile solutions that only grant the necessary privileges, but I didn't really understood it, resp. played with the different options. Someone?
Connect named volumes or data-only containers
Connect the named volumes or the data-only container(s) to the backup container. Note that it is possible that a data-only container exposes multiple directories and that more than one data-only container can be connected.
docker run -d [...] --volumes-from application-config --volumes-from application-data --volume named_volume:/path/inside/container [...] dinkel/backup
Connect databases as --link
Databases to backup (by creating a full dump) need to be connected using the
--link option. Please note that the "name" after the colon, is the hostname as known inside the backup container to connect to the database.
docker run -d [...] --link application-db:db [...] dinkel/backup
Name the "project"
With a backup run, all variable data of an application should be saved, so that a consistent state is found in one place. Therefore name this "project" accordingly. It is set as an environment variable.
docker run -d [...] --env BACKUP_PROJECT="application-name" [...] dinkel/backup
Set directories to backup
Set every absolute directory in the backup container you want to backup (ones that have been included through
--volume). They need to be separated with a colon.
docker run -d [...] --env BACKUP_FILES_PATHS=/var/www/config:/var/www/data [...] dinkel/backup
Set database information to backup
Set the host running the database, port and user credentials. The
_HOST variable is mandatory and acts as the trigger to do an actual database backup,
_PASSWORD are optional and fall back to default values.
Example (for PostgreSQL):
docker run -d [...] --env BACKUP_POSTGRESQL_HOST=db --env BACKUP_POSTGRESQL_USER=admin --env BACKUP_POSTGRESQL_PASSWORD=mysecretpassword [...] dinkel/backup
We now have a complete example:
docker run -d --privileged --volume /media/backup:/backup --volumes-from application-config --volumes-from application-data --link application-db:db --env BACKUP_PROJECT="application-name" --env BACKUP_FILES_PATHS=/var/www/config:/var/www/data --env BACKUP_POSTGRESQL_HOST=db --env BACKUP_POSTGRESQL_USER=admin --env BACKUP_POSTGRESQL_PASSWORD=mysecretpassword dinkel/backup
See above for a exemplified explanation. The environment variables are described in more detail in btr-backup.