This is Fedora 24 running Xfce - you can connect to using VNC.
Tested on native Fedora and on Synology DSM 6.0.2.
Map a port and set a password for VNC connection (will fail to start if no password is set)
docker run -p 5900:5900 -e PASSWORD="pass"
You can add more programs to the running container using Fedora Packet Manager " dnf ".
Interested in LXDE?
Check here: https://hub.docker.com/r/fluedke/fedora24_lxde/