The Dockerfile for this image is available in the Puppetserver repository under the 'docker/puppetserver-standalone' directory.
You can run a copy of Puppet Server with the following Docker command.
docker run --name puppet --hostname puppet puppet/puppetserver-standalone
Although it is not strictly necessary to name the container
puppet, this is useful when working with the other Puppet images, as they will look for a master on that hostname by default.
If you would like to start the Puppet Server with your own Puppet code, you can mount your own directory at
docker run --name puppet --hostname puppet -v ./code:/etc/puppetlabs/code/ puppet/puppetserver-standalone
You can find out more about Puppet Server in the official documentation.