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Last pushed: a year ago
Short Description
oTree testing fra Docker
Full Description

oTree 1.0

oTree is a framework based on Python and Django that lets you build:

  • Multiplayer strategy games, like the prisoner's dilemma, public goods game, and auctions
  • Controlled behavioral experiments in economics, psychology, and related fields
  • Surveys and quizzes

Live demo



Quick start

Rather than cloning this repo directly,
run these commands:

pip3 install -U otree-core
otree startproject oTree
otree resetdb
otree runserver

Example game: guess 2/3 of the average

Below is a full implementation of the
Guess 2/3 of the average game,
where everyone guesses a number, and the winner is the person closest to 2/3 of the average.
The game is repeated for 3 rounds.
You can play the below game here.

from otree.api import (
    models, widgets, BaseConstants, BaseSubsession, BaseGroup, BasePlayer,

class Constants(BaseConstants):
    players_per_group = 3
    num_rounds = 3
    name_in_url = 'guess_two_thirds'

    jackpot = Currency(100)
    guess_max = 100

class Subsession(BaseSubsession):

class Group(BaseGroup):
    two_thirds_avg = models.FloatField()
    best_guess = models.PositiveIntegerField()
    num_winners = models.PositiveIntegerField()

    def set_payoffs(self):
        players = self.get_players()
        guesses = [p.guess for p in players]
        two_thirds_avg = (2 / 3) * sum(guesses) / len(players)
        self.two_thirds_avg = round(two_thirds_avg, 2)

        self.best_guess = min(guesses,
            key=lambda guess: abs(guess - self.two_thirds_avg))

        winners = [p for p in players if p.guess == self.best_guess]
        self.num_winners = len(winners)

        for p in winners:
            p.is_winner = True
            p.payoff = Constants.jackpot / self.num_winners

    def two_thirds_avg_history(self):
        return [g.two_thirds_avg for g in self.in_previous_rounds()]

class Player(BasePlayer):
    guess = models.PositiveIntegerField(max=Constants.guess_max)
    is_winner = models.BooleanField(initial=False)

from . import models
from otree.api import Page, WaitPage

class Introduction(Page):
    def is_displayed(self):
        return self.round_number == 1

class Guess(Page):
    form_model = models.Player
    form_fields = ['guess']

class ResultsWaitPage(WaitPage):
    def after_all_players_arrive(self):

class Results(Page):
    def vars_for_template(self):
        sorted_guesses = sorted(p.guess for p in

        return {'sorted_guesses': sorted_guesses}

page_sequence = [Introduction,

HTML templates

Results.html (optional)

Test bots for multiplayer games run in parallel,
and can run either from the command line,
or in the browser, which you can try here.

from otree.api import Bot, SubmissionMustFail
from . import views
from .models import Constants

class PlayerBot(Bot):
    cases = ['p1_wins', 'p1_and_p2_win']

    def play_round(self):
        if self.subsession.round_number == 1:
            yield (views.Introduction)

        if == 'p1_wins':
            if self.player.id_in_group == 1:
                for invalid_guess in [-1, 101]:
                    yield SubmissionMustFail(views.Guess, {"guess": invalid_guess})
                yield (views.Guess, {"guess": 9})
                assert self.player.payoff == Constants.jackpot
                assert 'you win' in self.html
                yield (views.Guess, {"guess": 10})
                assert self.player.payoff == 0
                assert 'you did not win' in self.html
            if self.player.id_in_group in [1, 2]:
                yield (views.Guess, {"guess": 9})
                assert self.player.payoff == Constants.jackpot / 2
                assert 'you are one of the 2 winners' in self.html
                yield (views.Guess, {"guess": 10})
                assert self.player.payoff == 0
                assert 'you did not win' in self.html

        yield (views.Results)

See docs on bots.


Contact & support

Help & discussion mailing list

Contact with bug reports.


Related repositories

The oTree core libraries are here.

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Source Repository