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Last pushed: a month ago
Short Description
A homogeneous MariaDB Galera Cluster image to run on Docker Swarm mode with etcd.
Full Description

MariaDB 10.1 Docker Image (Galera)

Table of Contents

  1. Overview
  2. Requirement
  3. Image Description
  4. Run Container
  5. Build Image
  6. Discovery Service
  7. Known Limitations
  8. Development

Overview

The image supports running MariaDB 10.1 (Galera is included) with Docker orchestration tool like Docker Engine Swarm Mode and Kubernetes and requires an etcd (standalone or cluster) to run homogeneously. It can also run on a standalone environment.

Requirement

A healthy etcd cluster. Please refer to Severalnines' blog post on how to setup this.

Image Description

To pull the image, simply:

$ docker pull severalnines/mariadb

The image consists of MariaDB 10.1 (Galera ready) and all of its components:

  • MariaDB client package.
  • Percona Xtrabackup.
  • jq - Lightweight and flexible command-line JSON processor.
  • report_status.sh - report Galera status to etcd every TTL.
  • healthcheck.sh

Run Container

The Docker image accepts the following parameters:

  • One of MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD must be defined.
  • The image will create the user xtrabackup@localhost for the XtraBackup SST method. If you want to use a password for the xtrabackup user, set XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD.
  • If you want to use the discovery service (right now only etcd is supported), set the address (ip:port format) to DISCOVERY_SERVICE. It can accept multiple addresses separated by a comma. The image will automatically find a running cluser by CLUSTER_NAME and join to the existing cluster (or start a new one).
  • If you want to start without the discovery service, use the CLUSTER_JOIN variable. Empty variables will start a new cluster. To join an existing cluster, set CLUSTER_JOIN to the list of IP addresses running cluster nodes.
  • TTL by default is 30 seconds. Container will report every TTL - 2 seconds when it's alive (wsrep_cluster_state_comment=Synced) via report_status.sh. If a container is down, it will no longer send an update to etcd thus the key (wsrep_cluster_state_comment) is removed after expiration. This simply indicates that the registered node is no longer synced with the cluster and it will be skipped when constructing the Galera communication address.

Minimum of 3 containers is recommended for high availability. Running standalone is also possible with standard "docker run" command as shown further down.

Docker Engine Swarm Mode

Ephemeral Storage

Assuming:

  • etcd cluster is running on 192.168.55.111:2379, 192.168.55.112:2379 and 192.168.55.113:2379.
  • Created an overlay network called galera-net.

Then, to run a three-node MariaDB Galera Cluster on Docker Swarm mode (with ephemeral storage):

$ docker service create \
--name mariadb-galera \
--replicas 3 \
-p 3306:3306 \
--network galera-net \
--env MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mypassword \
--env DISCOVERY_SERVICE=192.168.55.111:2379,192.168.55.112:2379,192.168.55.113:2379 \
--env XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=mypassword \
--env CLUSTER_NAME=my_wsrep_cluster \
severalnines/mariadb

Persistent Storage

Assuming:

  • etcd cluster is running on 192.168.55.111:2379, 192.168.55.112:2379 and 192.168.55.113:2379.
  • Created an overlay network called galera-net.

Then, to run a three-node MariaDB Galera Cluster on Docker Swarm mode (with persistent storage):

$ docker service create \
--name mariadb-galera \
--replicas 3 \
-p 3306:3306 \
--network galera-net \
--mount type=volume,source=galera-vol,destination=/var/lib/mysql \
--env MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mypassword \
--env DISCOVERY_SERVICE=192.168.55.111:2379,192.168.55.112:2379,192.168.55.113:2379 \
--env XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=mypassword \
--env CLUSTER_NAME=my_wsrep_cluster \
severalnines/mariadb

Custom my.cnf

Assuming:

  • Directory /mnt/docker/mysql-config is exist on all Docker host for data volume mapping. All custom my.cnf should be located under this directory.
  • etcd cluster is running on 192.168.55.111:2379, 192.168.55.112:2379 and 192.168.55.113:2379.
  • Created an overlay network called galera-net.

Then, to run a three-node MariaDB Galera Cluster on Docker Swarm mode:

$ docker service create \
--name mariadb-galera \
--replicas 3 \
-p 3306:3306 \
--network galera-net \
--mount type=volume,source=galera-vol,destination=/var/lib/mysql \
--mount type=bind,src=/mnt/docker/mysql-config,dst=/etc/my.cnf.d \
--env MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mypassword \
--env DISCOVERY_SERVICE=192.168.55.111:2379,192.168.55.112:2379,192.168.55.113:2379 \
--env XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=mypassword \
--env CLUSTER_NAME=my_wsrep_cluster \
severalnines/mariadb

Verify with:

$ docker service ps mariadb-galera

External applications/clients can connect to any Docker host IP address or hostname on port 3306, requests will be load balanced between the Galera containers. The connection gets NATed to a Virtual IP address for each service "task" (container, in this case) using the Linux kernel's built-in load balancing functionality, IPVS. If the application containers reside in the same overlay network (galera-net), then use the assigned virtual IP address instead.

You can retrieve it using the inspect option:

$ docker service inspect mariadb-galera -f "{{ .Endpoint.VirtualIPs }}"

Or, simply ping to the service name inside one of the containers in the same network 'galera-net':

$ ping mariadb-galera

Kubernetes

Coming soon.

Without Orchestration Tool

To run a standalone Galera node, the command would be:

$ docker run -d \
-p 3306 \
--name=galera \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mypassword \
-e DISCOVERY_SERVICE=192.168.55.111:2379,192.168.55.112:2379,192.168.55.113:2379 \
-e CLUSTER_NAME=my_wsrep_cluster \
-e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=mypassword \
severalnines/mariadb

With some iterations, you can create a three-node Galera cluster, as shown in the following example:

$ for i in 1 2 3; 
do \
docker run -d \
-p 3306 \
--name=galera${i} \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=mypassword \
-e DISCOVERY_SERVICE=192.168.55.111:2379,192.168.55.112:2379,192.168.55.113:2379 \
-e CLUSTER_NAME=my_wsrep_cluster \
-e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=mypassword \
severalnines/mariadb;
done

Verify with:

$ docker ps

Build Image

To build Docker image, download the Docker related files available at our Github repository:

$ git clone https://github.com/severalnines/galera-docker-mariadb
$ cd galera-docker-mariadb
$ docker build -t --rm=true severalnines/mariadb .

Verify with:

$ docker images

Discovery Service

All nodes should report to etcd periodically with an expiring key. The default TTL value is 30 seconds. Container will report every TTL - 2 seconds when it's alive (wsrep_cluster_state_comment=Synced) via report_status.sh. If a container is down, it will no longer send an update to etcd thus the key (wsrep_cluster_state_comment) is removed after expiration. This simply indicates that the registered node is no longer synced with the cluster and it will be skipped when constructing the Galera communication address.

To check the list of running nodes via etcd, run the following (assuming CLUSTER_NAME="my_wsrep_cluster"):

$ curl -s "http://192.168.55.111:2379/v2/keys/galera/my_wsrep_cluster?recursive=true" | python -m json.tool
{
    "action": "get",
    "node": {
        "createdIndex": 10049,
        "dir": true,
        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster",
        "modifiedIndex": 10049,
        "nodes": [
            {
                "createdIndex": 10067,
                "dir": true,
                "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.6",
                "modifiedIndex": 10067,
                "nodes": [
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10075,
                        "expiration": "2016-11-29T10:55:35.37622336Z",
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.6/wsrep_last_committed",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10075,
                        "ttl": 10,
                        "value": "0"
                    },
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10073,
                        "expiration": "2016-11-29T10:55:34.788170259Z",
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.6/wsrep_local_state_comment",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10073,
                        "ttl": 10,
                        "value": "Synced"
                    }
                ]
            },
            {
                "createdIndex": 10049,
                "dir": true,
                "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.7",
                "modifiedIndex": 10049,
                "nodes": [
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10049,
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.7/ipaddress",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10049,
                        "value": "10.255.0.7"
                    },
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10074,
                        "expiration": "2016-11-29T10:55:35.218496083Z",
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.7/wsrep_last_committed",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10074,
                        "ttl": 10,
                        "value": "0"
                    },
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10072,
                        "expiration": "2016-11-29T10:55:34.650574629Z",
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.7/wsrep_local_state_comment",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10072,
                        "ttl": 10,
                        "value": "Synced"
                    }
                ]
            },
            {
                "createdIndex": 10070,
                "dir": true,
                "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.8",
                "modifiedIndex": 10070,
                "nodes": [
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10077,
                        "expiration": "2016-11-29T10:55:39.681757381Z",
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.8/wsrep_last_committed",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10077,
                        "ttl": 15,
                        "value": "0"
                    },
                    {
                        "createdIndex": 10076,
                        "expiration": "2016-11-29T10:55:38.638268679Z",
                        "key": "/galera/my_wsrep_cluster/10.255.0.8/wsrep_local_state_comment",
                        "modifiedIndex": 10076,
                        "ttl": 14,
                        "value": "Synced"
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
}

Known Limitations

  • The image are tested and built using Docker version 1.12.3, build 6b644ec on CentOS 7.1.

  • There will be no automatic recovery if a split-brain happens (where all nodes are in Non-Primary state). This is because the MySQL service is still running, yet it will refuse to serve any data and will return error to the client. Docker has no capability to detect this since what it cares about is the foreground MySQL process which is not terminated, killed or stopped. Automating this process is risky, especially if the service discovery is co-located with the Docker host (etcd would also lose contact with other members). Although if the service discovery is healthy externally, it is probably unreachable from the Galera containers perspective, preventing each other to see the container’s status correctly during the glitch. In this case, you will need to intervene manually. Choose the most advanced node to bootstrap and then run the following command to promote the node as Primary (other nodes shall then rejoin automatically if the network recovers):

$ docker exec -it [container] mysql -uroot -pyoursecret -e 'set global wsrep_provider_option="pc.bootstrap=1"'
  • Also, there is no automatic cleanup for the discovery service registry. You can remove all entries using either the following command (assuming the CLUSTER_NAME is my_wsrep_cluster):
$ curl http://192.168.55.111:2379/v2/keys/galera/my_wsrep_cluster?recursive=true -XDELETE

Or using etcdctl command:

$ etcdctl rm /galera/my_wsrep_cluster --recursive

Development

Please report bugs, improvements or suggestions by creating issue in Github or via our support channel: https://support.severalnines.com

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