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Last pushed: a year ago
Short Description
Postgres failover for Kubernetes
Full Description

Streaming replication cluster for pgsql + pgpool2

This project includes dockerfiles for postgresql cluster and example of docker-compose file to start this cluster.
Directory k8s contains information for building this cluster in kubernetes

Also this example of cluster setup suitable for production environment as it has fault protection with auto failover system.

Two docker images were produced:

Schema of cluster

pgmaster (primary node1)  --|
|- pgslave1 (node2)       --|
|  |- pgslave2 (node3)    --|----pgpool (master_slave_mode stream)
|- pgslave3 (node4)       --|
   |- pgslave4 (node5)    --|

Each postgres node (pgmaster, pgslaveX) is managed by repmgr/repmgrd. It allows to use automatic failover and

To start cluster run it as normal docker-compose application docker-compose up

Please check comments for each ENV variable in docker-compose file to understand related parameter of cluster's node

Strat cluster in Kubernetes

To make it easier repository contains scripts for starting cluster using docker-machine and services' objects under k8s dir
Requires software: docker-machine and kubectl

  • Start k8s cluster by command ./k8s/scripts/cluster/up.sh and wait until all pods up (to check it you acn use command kubectl get pod --all-namespaces)
    Sometimes you can have problem with auto installation of DNS (after message Unable to connect to the server: EOF)
    So do it manually with commands docker-machine ssh $(docker-machine active) -N -L 8080:localhost:8080(in separate terminal), kubectl create namespace kube-system && kubectl create -f ./build/skydns.yaml
  • Start postgres cluster
    • If you have good fast machine and can relay on timeouts in configs ./k8s/scripts/up.sh and check all pods are ready kubectl get pod
    • However you can install layers of the system one by one with checking pods' status:
      • Setup namespace and context of cluster: ./k8s/scripts/setup_context.sh && kubectl create ns app (check namespace exists kubectl get ns)
      • Create master node kubectl create -f ./k8s/database-service/node1-master.yaml
      • Create first level of cluster kubectl create -f ./k8s/database-service/node2.yaml && kubectl create -f ./k8s/database-service/node4.yaml (node2 and node4 need around 4 minutes to start daemon)
      • Create second level of cluster kubectl create -f ./k8s/database-service/node3.yaml && kubectl create -f ./k8s/database-service/node5.yaml (node3 and node5 need around 6 minutes to start daemon)
      • Create pgpool endpoint kubectl create -f ./k8s/database-service/pgpool.yaml (need around 3 minutes to start service)
  • Check everything works as expected
    • In each container you should see in logs 2 things:
      • Node registration success after line >>> Registering node with initial role master|standby
      • Repmgr daemon started successfully after line >>> Starting repmgr daemon...
    • Connect to postgresql cluster endpoint and make some read and write queries: PGPASSWORD=monkey_pass psql -Umonkey_user -h192.168.99.100 -p5430 monkey_db
    • Check status/topology of the cluster (e.g. from master node) docker exec -it "$(docker ps | grep 'postgresql-cluster-pgsql' | grep node1 | awk '{print $1}')" gosu postgres repmgr cluster show

Initial topology:

Role      | Name  | Upstream | Connection String
----------+-------|----------|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* master  | node1 |          | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node1-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node2 | node1    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node2-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node4 | node1    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node4-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node3 | node2    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node3-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node5 | node4    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node5-service dbname=replication_db port=5432

Topology after master death (kubectl delete service database-node1-service)

Role      | Name  | Upstream | Connection String
----------+-------|----------|------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  standby | node3 | node2    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node3-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node5 | node4    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node5-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  FAILED  | node1 |          | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node1-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
* master  | node2 |          | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node2-service dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node4 | node2    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=database-node4-service dbname=replication_db port=5432

Some rules of using cluster

Docker compose restart

Don't try restart docker-compose without cleaning volumes after any failover (unless you use env variable FORCE_CLEAN=1 in each container)
You should update cluster with new topology manually because second start of initial master will bring inconsistent in the cluster.
Optionally you can reconfigure your pgpool to ignore initial master before second start

Abnormal but possible situation in cluster:

Role      | Name  | Upstream | Connection String
----------+-------|----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  standby | node3 | node2    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=pgslave2 dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node5 | node4    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=pgslave4 dbname=replication_db port=5432
* master  | node1 |          | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=pgmaster dbname=replication_db port=5432
* master  | node2 |          | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=pgslave1 dbname=replication_db port=5432
  standby | node4 | node2    | user=replication_user password=replication_pass host=pgslave3 dbname=replication_db port=5432

Time management in cluster

You should take care about delays of starts for different parts of the cluster.
Pgpool should be the last one to start, standbys servers should start after upstreams, etc
In docker-compose you can find example of _DELAY-s but it still can be wrong.
According your system and it's performance you should adjust those env variables.

Useful commands

  • Get map of current cluster(in any node): gosu postgres repmgr cluster show

Scenarios

Changing primary/master server on crash

Kill master container and in a few moments cluster will define new master node,
and Pgpool will try to detect new primary node for write access automatically.

Improvements

Instead of one pgpool node you can have as many as you wish and balance load on them.
It's possible because pgpool does'not control cluster and does dummy balancing with primary server detection.

Known problems

FAQ

Documentation and manuals

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Owner
solsson
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