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Short Description
Zero Knowledge proof of balance.
Full Description

Pequin: An end-to-end toolchain for verifiable computation, SNARKs, and probabilistic proofs

Pequin is a toolchain to verifiably execute programs expressed in (a
large subset of) the C programming language. There are two parties: a
prover and verifier. Using Pequin, the prover can convince the
verifier that it executed a given computation according to the program
expressed by the verifier. More generally, using Pequin, the prover can
convince the verifier of the truth of some assertion, without the
verifier having to manually check every line of the proof of that

Pequin consists of a front-end and a back-end. The front-end takes C
programs and transforms them to a set of arithmetic constraints, in
such a way that the constraints are satisfiable if and only if the
purported output (which will be produced by the prover, and which is
represented by variables in the constraints) is what the original
program would have produced. The back-end is a probabilistic proof
protocol by which the prover convinces the verifier that the constraints
are indeed satisfiable (if they are); if the constraints are not
satisfiable, the verifier is not fooled, except with vanishingly low

The specific back-end in Pequin is a zk-SNARK (zero-knowledge succinct
non-interactive argument of knowledge). Pequin uses SCIPR Lab's
, which is an
optimized implementation of the back-end of
itself a refinement and implementation of

Pequin is a result of several years of research in the Pepper
, done at NYU and UT Austin.
Pepper has brought to bear powerful techniques from
complexity theory and cryptography: probabilistically checkable proofs
(PCPs), efficient arguments, interactive proofs (IPs) etc.
Pepper's research results include
reducing the computational costs of a PCP-based efficient argument by
over 20 orders of magnitude (in base 10!), and extending verifiability to
representative uses of cloud computing (MapReduce jobs, simple
database queries, computations involving private databases, etc.).
These results and others are published in peer-reviewed scientific

Pepper itself has code;
the goal of Pequin in particular is to be easier to use, and more composable. Development is ongoing. Please open issues or
submit pull requests! (This source code is released under a BSD-style
license. See LICENSE for more details.)

What's coming next?

  • Incorporating other back-ends
  • Improving documentation and usability of this codebase is ongoing.

Installation and first steps

  1. This codebase depends on several external libraries. Installation
    scripts are provided for a few common linux distros. For example,
    on Ubuntu 14.04 or Debian Jessie,


    will install some packages from apt repositories and compile our
    snapshots of some third-party dependencies. (You will be
    prompted to enter your password to install the apt packages as

  2. ./ will build the patched Clang/LLVM libraries for
    Buffet's C-to-C compiler, needed for running computations with
    data-dependent loops and control flow.

For more information on setting up dependencies (for example, for
other distros), see and compiler/buffetfsm/

Once everything is set up, you're ready to run some verifiable
computations! Please see for a quick overview of the process.


Please contact for any questions and comments. We are happy to work with you to adapt this technology into your application.

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