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Last pushed: a month ago
Short Description
Image with uWSGI and Nginx for Flask apps in Python 2.7 and 3.5 running in a single container.
Full Description

Supported tags and respective Dockerfile links

DEPRECATED tags and respective Dockerfile links

uwsgi-nginx-flask

Docker image with uWSGI and Nginx for Flask web applications in Python 3.6, Python 3.5 and Python 2.7 running in a single container.

Description

This Docker image allows you to create Flask web applications in Python that run with uWSGI and Nginx in a single container.

uWSGI with Nginx is one of the best ways to deploy a Python web application, so you you should have a good performance (check the benchmarks) with this image.

GitHub repo: https://github.com/tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask-docker

Docker Hub image: https://hub.docker.com/r/tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask/

Examples (project templates)

  • python3.6 tag: general Flask web application:

example-flask-python3.6.zip

  • python3.6 tag: general Flask web application, structured as a package, for bigger Flask projects, with different submodules. Use it only as an example of how to import your modules and how to structure your own project:

example-flask-package-python3.6.zip

  • python3.6-index tag: static/index.html served directly in /, e.g. for Angular, React, or any other Single-Page Application that uses a static index.html, not modified by Python:

example-flask-python3.6-index.zip

General Instructions

You don't have to clone this repo, you should be able to use this image as a base image for your project with something in your Dockerfile like:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask:python3.6

COPY ./app /app

There are several image tags available for Python 3.6, Python 3.5 and Python 2.7, but for new projects you should use Python 3.6.

As of now, everyone should be using Python 3.

There are several template projects that you can download (as a .zip file) to bootstrap your project in the section "Examples (project templates)" above.

This Docker image is based on tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx. That Docker image has uWSGI and Nginx installed in the same container and was made to be the base of this image.

QuickStart

Note: You can download the example-flask-python3.6.zip project example and use it as the template for your project from the section Examples above.


Or you may follow the instructions to build your project from scratch:

  • Go to your project directory
  • Create a Dockerfile with:
FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask:python3.6

COPY ./app /app
  • Create an app directory and enter in it
  • Create a main.py file (it should be named like that and should be in your app directory) with:
from flask import Flask
app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route("/")
def hello():
    return "Hello World from Flask"

if __name__ == "__main__":
    # Only for debugging while developing
    app.run(host='0.0.0.0', debug=True, port=80)

the main application object should be named app (in the code) as in this example.

Note: The section with the main() function is for debugging purposes. To learn more, read the Advanced instructions below.

  • You should now have a directory structure like:
.
├── app
│   └── main.py
└── Dockerfile
  • Go to the project directory (in where your Dockerfile is, containing your app directory)
  • Build your Flask image:
docker build -t myimage .
  • Run a container based on your image:
docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 myimage

...and you have an optimized Flask server in a Docker container.

You should be able to check it in your Docker container's URL, for example: http://192.168.99.100/

QuickStart for SPAs

This section explains how to configure the image to serve the contents of /static/index.html directly when the browser requests /.

This is specially helpful (and efficient) if you are building a Single-Page Application (SPA) with JavaScript (Angular, React, etc) and you want the index.html to be served directly, without modifications by Python or Jinja2 templates. And you want to use Flask mainly as an API / back end for your SPA front end.

Note: You can download the example project example-flask-python3.6-index.zip and use it as the template for your project in the Examples section above.


Or you may follow the instructions to build your project from scratch (it's very similar to the procedure above):

  • Go to your project directory
  • Create a Dockerfile with:
FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask:python3.6

ENV STATIC_INDEX 1

COPY ./app /app
  • Create an app directory and enter in it
  • Create a main.py file (it should be named like that and should be in your app directory) with:
from flask import Flask, send_file
app = Flask(__name__)


@app.route("/hello")
def hello():
    return "Hello World from Flask"


@app.route("/")
def main():
    index_path = os.path.join(app.static_folder, 'index.html')
    return send_file(index_path)


# Everything not declared before (not a Flask route / API endpoint)...
@app.route('/<path:path>')
def route_frontend(path):
    # ...could be a static file needed by the front end that
    # doesn't use the `static` path (like in `<script src="bundle.js">`)
    file_path = os.path.join(app.static_folder, path)
    if os.path.isfile(file_path):
        return send_file(file_path)
    # ...or should be handled by the SPA's "router" in front end
    else:
        index_path = os.path.join(app.static_folder, 'index.html')
        return send_file(index_path)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    # Only for debugging while developing
    app.run(host='0.0.0.0', debug=True, port=80)

the main application object should be named app (in the code) as in this example.

Note: The section with the main() function is for debugging purposes. To learn more, read the Advanced instructions below.

  • Make sure you have an index.html file in ./app/static/index.html, for example with:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Index</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Hello World from HTML</h1>
</body>
</html>
  • You should now have a directory structure like:
.
├── app
│   ├── main.py
│   └── static
│       └── index.html
└── Dockerfile
  • Go to the project directory (in where your Dockerfile is, containing your app directory)
  • Build your Flask image:
docker build -t myimage .
  • Run a container based on your image:
docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 myimage

...and you have an optimized Flask server in a Docker container. Also optimized to serve your main static index.html page.

Note: As your index.html file will be served from / and from /static/index.html, it would be better to have absolute paths in the links to other files in the static directory from your index.html file. As in /static/css/styles.css instead of relative paths as in ./css/styles.css. But still, above you added code in your main.py to handle that too, just in case.

QuickStart for bigger projects structured as a Python package

Note: You can download the example-flask-package-python3.6.zip project example and use it as an example or template for your project from the section Examples above.


You should be able to follow the same instructions as in the "QuickStart" section above, with some minor modifications:

  • Instead of putting your code in the app/ directory, put it in a directory app/main/.
  • Add a file __init__.py inside of that app/main/ directory.

Your file structure would look like:

.
├── app
│   ├── main
│   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   ├── main.py
└── Dockerfile

...instead of:

.
├── app
│   ├── main.py
└── Dockerfile
  • In the file app/main/__init__.py put:
from .main import app

...after that, everything should work as expected. All the other instructions would apply normally.

Working with submodules

  • After adding all your modules you could end up with a file structure similar to (taken from the example project):
.
├── app
│   ├── main
│   │   ├── api
│   │   │   ├── api.py
│   │   │   ├── endpoints
│   │   │   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   │   │   └── user.py
│   │   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   │   └── utils.py
│   │   ├── core
│   │   │   ├── app_setup.py
│   │   │   ├── database.py
│   │   │   └── __init__.py
│   │   ├── __init__.py
│   │   ├── main.py
│   │   └── models
│   │       ├── __init__.py
│   │       └── user.py
└── Dockerfile
from .core import app_setup
  • And if you are in app/main/api/endpoints/user.py and you want to import the users object from app/main/core/database.py you would write it like:
from ...core.database import users

Advanced instructions

You can customize several things using environment variables.

Serve index.html directly

Setting the environment variable STATIC_INDEX to be 1 you can configure Nginx to serve the file in the URL /static/index.html when requested for /.

That would improve speed as it would not involve uWSGI nor Python. Nginx would serve the file directly. To learn more follow the section above "QuickStart for SPAs".

For example, to enable it, you could add this to your Dockerfile:

ENV STATIC_INDEX 1

Max upload file size

You can set a custom maximum upload file size using an environment variable NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD, by default it has a value of 0, that allows unlimited upload file sizes. This differs from Nginx's default value of 1 MB. It's configured this way because that's the simplest experience a developer that is not expert in Nginx would expect.

For example, to have a maximum upload file size of 1 MB (Nginx's default) add a line in your Dockerfile with:

ENV NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD 1m

Custom uwsgi.ini file

You can override where the image should look for the app uwsgi.ini file using the envirnoment variable UWSGI_INI.

With that you could change the default directory for your app from /app to something else, like /application.

For example, to make the image use the file in /application/uwsgi.ini, you could add this to your Dockerfile:

ENV UWSGI_INI /application/uwsgi.ini

COPY ./application /application
WORKDIR /application

Note: the WORKDIR is important, otherwhise uWSGI will try to run the app in /app.

Note: you would also have to configure the static files path, read below.

Custom ./static/ path

You can make Nginx use a custom directory path with the files to serve directly (without having uWSGI involved) with the environment variable STATIC_PATH.

For example, to make Nginx serve the static content using the files in /app/custom_static/ you could add this to your Dockerfile:

ENV STATIC_PATH /app/custom_static

Then, when the browser asked for a file in, for example, http://example.com/static/index.html, Nginx would answer directly using a file in the path /app/custom_static/index.html.

Note: you would also have to configure Flask to use that as its static directory.


As another example, if you needed to put your application code in a different directory, you could configure Nginx to serve those static files from that different directory.

If you needed to have your static files in /application/static/ you could add this to your Dockerfile:

ENV STATIC_PATH /application/static

Custom /static URL

You can also make Nginx serve the static files in a different URL, for that, you can use the environment variable STATIC_URL.

For example, if you wanted to change the URL /static to /content you could add this to your Dockerfile:

ENV STATIC_URL /content

Then, when the browser asked for a file in, for example, http://example.com/content/index.html, Nginx would answer directly using a file in the path /app/static/index.html.

Customizing Nginx configurations

If you need to configure Nginx further, you can add *.conf files to /etc/nginx/conf.d/ in your Dockerfile.

Just have in mind that the default configurations are created during startup in a file in /etc/nginx/conf.d/nginx.conf and /etc/nginx/conf.d/upload.conf. So you shouldn't overwrite them. You should name your *.conf file with something different than nginx.conf or upload.conf.

Technical details

One of the best ways to deploy a Python web application is with uWSGI and Nginx, as seen in the benchmarks.

Roughly:

  • Nginx is a web server, it takes care of the HTTP connections and also can serve static files directly and more efficiently.

  • uWSGI is an application server, that's what runs your Python code and it talks with Nginx.

  • Your Python code has the actual Flask web application, and is run by uWSGI.

The image tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx takes advantage of already slim and optimized existing Docker images (based on Debian as recommended by Docker) and implements Docker best practices.

It uses the official Python Docker image, installs uWSGI and on top of that (with the least amount of modifications) and adds the official Nginx image.

And it controls all these processes with Supervisord.

The image (and tags) created by this repo is based on the image tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx. This image adds Flask and sensible defaults on top of it.

If you follow the instructions and keep the root directory /app in your container, with a file named main.py and a Flask object named app in it, it should "just work".

There's already a uwsgi.ini file in the /app directory with the uWSGI configurations for it to "just work". And all the other required parameters are in another uwsgi.ini file in the image, inside /etc/uwsgi/.

If you need to change the main file name or the main Flask object, you would have to provide your own uwsgi.ini file. You may use the one in this repo as a template to start with (and you only would have to change the 2 corresponding lines).

You can have a /app/static directory and those files will be efficiently served by Nginx directly (without going through your Flask code or even uWSGI), it's already configured for you. But you can configure it further using environment variables (read above).

Supervisord takes care of running uWSGI with the uwsgi.ini file in /app file (including also the file in /etc/uwsgi/uwsgi.ini) and starting Nginx.


There's the rule of thumb that you should have "one process per container".

That helps, for example, isolating an app and its database in different containers.

But if you want to have a "micro-services" approach you may want to have more than one process in one container if they are all related to the same "service", and you may want to include your Flask code, uWSGI and Nginx in the same container (and maybe run another container with your database).

That's the approach taken in this image.


This image (and tags) have some default files, so if you run it by itself (not as the base image of your own project) you will see a default "Hello World" web app.

When you build a Dockerfile with a COPY ./app /app you replace those default files with your app code.

The main default file is only in /app/main.py. And in the case of the tags with -index, also in /app/static/index.html.

But those files render a "(default)" text in the served web page, so that you can check if you are seeing the default code or your own code overriding the default.

Your app code should be in the container's /app directory, it should have a main.py file and that main.py file should have a Flask object app.

If you follow the instructions above or use one of the downloadable example templates, you should be OK.

There is also a /app/uwsgi.ini file inside the images with the default parameters for uWSGI.

The downloadable examples include a copy of the same uwsgi.ini file for debugging purposes. To learn more, read the "Advanced development instructions" below.

Advanced development instructions

While developing, you might want to make your code directory a volume in your Docker container.

With that you would have your files (temporarily) updated every time you modify them, without needing to build your container again.

To do this, you can use the command pwd (print working directory) inside your docker run and the flag -v for volumes.

With that you could map your ./app directory to your container's /app directory.

But first, as you will be completely replacing the directory /app in your container (and all of its contents) you will need to have a uwsgi.ini file in your ./app directory with:

[uwsgi]
module = main
callable = app

and then you can do the Docker volume mapping.

Note: A uwsgi.ini file is included in the downloadable examples.

  • To try it, go to your project directory (the one with your Dockerfile and your ./app directory)
  • Make sure you have a uwsgi.ini file in your ./app directory
  • Build your Docker image:
docker build -t myimage .
  • Run a container based on your image, mapping your code directory (./app) to your container's /app directory:
    bash
    docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 -v $(pwd)/app:/app myimage
    

If you go to your Docker container URL you should see your app, and you should be able to modify files in ./app/static/ and see those changes reflected in your browser just by reloading.

...but, as uWSGI loads your whole Python Flask web application once it starts, you won't be able to edit your Python Flask code and see the changes reflected.

To be able to (temporarily) debug your Python Flask code live, you can run your container overriding the default command (that starts Supervisord which in turn starts uWSGI and Nginx) and run your application directly with python, in debug mode, using the flask command with its environment variables.

So, with all the modifications above and making your app run directly with flask, the final Docker command would be:

docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 -v $(pwd)/app:/app -e FLASK_APP=main.py -e FLASK_DEBUG=1 myimage flask run --host=0.0.0.0 --port=80

Or in the case of a package project, you would set FLASK_APP=main/main.py:

docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 -v $(pwd)/app:/app -e FLASK_APP=main/main.py -e FLASK_DEBUG=1 myimage flask run --host=0.0.0.0 --port=80

Now you can edit your Flask code in your local machine and once you refresh your browser, you will see the changes live.

Remember that you should use this only for debugging and development, for deployment in production you shouldn't mount volumes and you should let Supervisord start and let it start uWSGI and Nginx (which is what happens by default).

An alternative for these last steps to work when you don't have a package but just a flat structure with single files (modules), your Python Flask code could have that section with:

if __name__ == "__main__":
   # Only for debugging while developing
   app.run(host='0.0.0.0', debug=True, port=80)

...and you could run it with python main.py. But that will only work when you are not using a package structure and don't plan to do it later. In that specific case, if you didn't add the code block above, your app would only listen to localhost (inside the container), in another port (5000) and not in debug mode.

Note: The example project example-flask-python3.6 includes a docker-compose.yml and docker-compose.override.yml with all these configurations, if you are using Docker Compose.


Also, if you want to do the same live debugging using the environment variable STATIC_INDEX=1 (to serve /app/static/index.html directly when requested for /) your Nginx won't serve it directly as it won't be running (only your Python Flask app in debug mode will be running).

from flask import Flask, send_file

and

@app.route('/')
def route_root():
    index_path = os.path.join(app.static_folder, 'index.html')
    return send_file(index_path)

...that makes sure your app also serves the /app/static/index.html file when requested for /. Or if you are using a package structure, the /app/main/static/index.html file.

And if you are using a SPA framework, to allow it to handle the URLs in the browser, your Python Flask code should have the section with:

# Everything not declared before (not a Flask route / API endpoint)...
@app.route('/<path:path>')
def route_frontend(path):
    # ...could be a static file needed by the front end that
    # doesn't use the `static` path (like in `<script src="bundle.js">`)
    file_path = os.path.join(app.static_folder, path)
    if os.path.isfile(file_path):
        return send_file(file_path)
    # ...or should be handled by the SPA's "router" in front end
    else:
        index_path = os.path.join(app.static_folder, 'index.html')
        return send_file(index_path)

...that makes Flask send all the CSS, JavaScript and image files when requested in the root (/) URL but also makes sure that your front end SPA handles all the other URLs that are not defined in your Flask app.

That's how it is written in the tutorial above and is included in the downloadable examples.

Note: The example project example-flask-python3.6-index includes a docker-compose.yml and docker-compose.override.yml with all these configurations, if you are using Docker Compose.

More advanced development instructions

If you follow the instructions above, it's probable that at some point, you will write code that will break your Flask debugging server and it will crash.

And since the only process running was your debugging server, that now is stopped, your container will stop.

Then you will have to start your container again after fixing your code and you won't see very easily what is the error that is crashing your server.

So, while developing, you could do the following (that's what I normally do, although I do it with Docker Compose, as in the example projects):

  • Make your container run and keep it alive in an infinite loop (without running any server):
docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 -v $(pwd)/app:/app -e FLASK_APP=main.py -e FLASK_DEBUG=1 myimage bash -c "while true ; do sleep 10 ; done"
  • Or, if your project is a package, set FLASK_APP=main/main.py:
docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 80:80 -v $(pwd)/app:/app -e FLASK_APP=main/main.py -e FLASK_DEBUG=1 myimage bash -c "while true ; do sleep 10 ; done"
  • Connect to your container with a new interactive session:
docker exec -it mycontainer bash

You will now be inside your container in the /app directory.

  • Now, from inside the container, run your Flask debugging server:
flask run --host=0.0.0.0 --port=80

You will see your Flask debugging server start, you will see how it sends responses to every request, you will see the errors thrown when you break your code and how they stop your server and you will be able to re-start your server very fast, by just running the command above again.

What's new

2017-09-10: Updated examples and sample project to work with SPAs even when structuring the app as a package (with subdirectories).

2017-09-02:

  • Example project with a Python package structure and a section explaining how to use it and structure a Flask project like that.
  • Also, the examples and documentation now use the flask run commands, that allows running a package application while developing more easily.

2017-08-10: Many changes:

  • New official image tags: python3.6, python3.6-index, python.3.5, python3.5-index, python2.7 and python2.7-index. All the other images are deprecated in favor is this ones.
  • Python 3.6 is now the recommended default. Even the example projects for other versions were removed to discourage using older Python versions for new projects.
  • Any of the older images that didn't have a Python version will show a deprecation warning and take some time to start. As soon the tag latest will point to Python 3.6 and the other tags will be removed.
  • There were several improvements in the bas image tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx that improved this image too.
  • By default, now there is no limit in the upload file size in Nginx. It can be configured in an environment variable.
  • It's now possible to configure several things with environment variables:
    • Serve index.html directly: STATIC_INDEX
    • Set the max upload file size: NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD
    • Set a custom uwsgi.ini file (that allows using a custom directory different than /app): UWSGI_INI (using the ideas by @bercikr in #5 ).
    • Set a custom ./static/ path: STATIC_PATH
    • Set a custom /static/ URL: STATIC_URL
  • As all this configurations are available as environment variables, the choices are a lot more simple. Actually, any new project would just need to use a Dockerfile with:
FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask:python3.6

COPY ./app /app

and then customize with environment variables.

License

This project is licensed under the terms of the Apache license.

Docker Pull Command
Owner
tiangolo

Comments (8)
jience
5 months ago

@hamx0r Thanks. My flask application already run successfully!

susarla
7 months ago

How do I go about and add Celery?

kronis
a year ago

Iam trying to install selenum, but all I get is Internal Server Error

    image: tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask:latest
    ports:
        - 9000:80
    volumes:
        - ./app:/app
FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask:latest

RUN pip install selenium

COPY ./app /app
from selenium import webdriver
ianfdk
a year ago

@rabit1 pip is installed on the docker container. So you can install panda by adding the following line in your Dockerfile:

RUN pip install pandas

Obviously, if you have more dependencies, you might want to have a requirements.txt file that contains all your dependencies. Just make sure that this file is COPYed to your container and then

RUN pip install -r /somepath/requirements.txt

Hope this helps!

rabit1
a year ago

Thanks for sharing this.

How do we add a python module such as panda for this flask-docker setup?

Sorry for the newbie question.
Best Regards,

tiangolo
a year ago

I'm glad you liked the documentation @hamx0r! :D

And thanks for the note on HTTPS!

hamx0r
a year ago

The base uwsgi-nginx-docker exposes both ports 80 and 443, yet HTTPS doesn't work out of the box. As a guide to those wishing to use HTTPs, here's what I did. Is there a better way?

Make new nginx.conf

I don't think we can just add a conf file to /etc/nginx/conf.d/ because we want to modify the {server} config. Copy the existing nginx.conf file and add 4 lines so the beginning of the file looks like this:

server {
    listen 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/mycert.crt;        # path to your cacert.pem
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/mycert.key;    # path to your privkey.pem

    location / {

Copy files in Dockerfile

Now be sure your Dockerfile copies the conf file and keys:

# To enable HTTPS, we need to copy certs and a new nginx.conf
COPY <path to>/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/
COPY <path to>/mycert.crt /etc/ssl/
COPY <path to>/mycert.key /etc/ssl/
hamx0r
2 years ago

You win for BEST documentation on Docker Hub - Thanks for taking the time to explain how to use your image so clearly!