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Last pushed: 4 days ago
Short Description
Image with uWSGI and Nginx for applications in Python 3.6 and 2.7 (as Flask) in a single container.
Full Description

Supported tags and respective Dockerfile links

uwsgi-nginx

Docker image with uWSGI and Nginx for web applications in Python 3.6, Python 3.5 and Python 2.7 (as Flask) in a single container. Optionally with Alpine Linux.

NOTICE

Soon the tag latest will point to python3.6 instead of python2.7.

If you are using in your Dockerfile:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:latest

you should update it to:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python2.7

Description

This Docker image allows you to create Python web applications that run with uWSGI and Nginx in a single container.

uWSGI with Nginx is one of the best ways to deploy a Python application, so you should have a good performance (check the benchmarks) with this image.

There is also an Alpine version. If you want it, use one of the Alpine tags from above.

This image was created to be the base image for tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask but could be used as the base image to run any Python web application.

If you are creating a new Flask web application you should use tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask instead.

GitHub repo: https://github.com/tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-docker

Docker Hub image: https://hub.docker.com/r/tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx/

How to use

  • You shouldn't have to clone the GitHub repo. You should use it as a base image for other images, using this in your Dockerfile:
FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python3.6

# Your Dockerfile code...
  • But, if you need Python 2.7 that line would have to be FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python2.7.

  • By default it will try to find a uWSGI config file in /app/uwsgi.ini.

  • That uwsgi.ini file will make it try to run a Python file in /app/main.py.

If you are building a Flask web application you should use instead tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx-flask.

Advanced usage

Custom app directory

If you need to use a directory for your app different than /app, you can override the uWSGI config file path with an environment variable UWSGI_INI, and put your custom uwsgi.ini file there.

For example, if you needed to have your application directory in /application instead of /app, your Dockerfile would look like:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python3.6

ENV UWSGI_INI /application/uwsgi.ini

COPY ./application /application
WORKDIR /appapplication

And your uwsgi.ini file in ./application/uwsgi.ini would contain:

[uwsgi]
wsgi-file=/application/main.py

Note: it's important to include the WORKDIR option, otherwise uWSGI will start the application in /app.

Custom max upload size

In this image, Nginx is configured to allow unlimited upload file sizes. This is done because by default a simple Python server would allow that, so that's the simplest behavior a developer would expect.

If you need to restrict the maximum upload size in Nginx, you can add an environment variable NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD and assign a value corresponding to the standard Nginx config client_max_body_size.

For example, if you wanted to set the maximum upload file size to 1 MB (the default in a normal Nginx installation), you would need to set the NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD environment variable to the value 1m. Then the image would take care of adding the corresponding configuration file (this is done by the entrypoint.sh).

So, your Dockerfile would look something like:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python3.6

ENV NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD 1m

COPY ./app /app

Custom listen port

By default, the container made from this image will listen on port 80.

To change this behavior, set the LISTEN_PORT environment variable.

You might also need to create the respective EXPOSE Docker instruction.

You can do that in your Dockerfile, it would look something like:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python3.6

ENV LISTEN_PORT 8080

EXPOSE 8080

COPY ./app /app

Custom Nginx processes number

By default, Nginx will start one "worker process".

If you want to set a different number of Nginx worker processes you can use the environment variable NGINX_WORKER_PROCESSES.

You can use a specific single number, e.g.:

ENV NGINX_WORKER_PROCESSES 2

or you can set it to the keyword auto and it will try to autodetect the number of CPUs available and use that for the number of workers.

For example, using auto, your Dockerfile could look like:

FROM tiangolo/uwsgi-nginx:python3.6

ENV NGINX_WORKER_PROCESSES auto

COPY ./app /app

What's new

<!-- **Note**: although Raspberry Pi can now compile and run the image, Docker Hub doesn't have an automated building process for other architectures yet. https://github.com/docker/hub-feedback/issues/1261 * 2017-12-09: The version based in Python 3.6 now supports multiple architectures apart from AMD64 using the new Docker multi-architecture features. It was tested on an ARMv7 32 bits (Raspberry Pi 3 B). To achieve that, the Python 3.6 version now uses a copy of the latest Nginx image which is based on the latest Debian version (Debian Stretch). In the official Python image, there's a Stretch version only for Python 3.6. So, that's the only one that can be merged with the current Nginx image. That's why, in this image, only Python 3.6 supports multi-arch. -->

  • 2018-02-04: It's now possible to set the number of Nginx worker processes with the environment variable NGINX_WORKER_PROCESSES. Thanks to naktinis in this PR.

  • 2018-01-14: There are now two Alpine based versions, python2.7-alpine3.7 and python3.6-alpine3.7.

  • 2017-12-08: Now you can configure which port the container should listen on, using the environment variable LISTEN_PORT thanks to tmshn in this PR.

  • 2017-08-09: You can set a custom maximum upload file size using an environment variable NGINX_MAX_UPLOAD, by default it has a value of 0, that allows unlimited upload file sizes. This differs from Nginx's default value of 1 MB. It's configured this way because that's the simplest experience a developer that is not expert in Nginx would expect.

  • 2017-08-09: Now you can override where to look for the uwsgi.ini file, and with that, change the default directory from /app to something else, using the envirnoment variable UWSGI_INI.

  • 2017-08-08: There's a new latest tag image, just to show a warning for those still using latest for Python 2.7 web applications. As of now, everyone should be using Python 3.

  • 2017-08-08: Supervisord now terminates uWSGI on SIGTERM, so if you run docker stop or something similar, it will actually stop everything, instead of waiting for Docker's timeout to kill the container.

  • 2017-07-31: There's now an image tag for Python 3.6, based on the official image for Python 3.6 thanks to jrd in this PR.

  • 2016-10-01: Now you can override default uwsgi.ini parameters from the file in /app/uwsgi.ini.

  • 2016-08-16: There's now an image tag for Python 3.5, based on the official image for Python 3.5. So now you can use this image for your projects in Python 2.7 and Python 3.5.

  • 2016-08-16: Use dynamic a number of worker processes for uWSGI, from 2 to 16 depending on load. This should work for most cases. This helps especially when there are some responses that are slow and take some time to be generated, this change allows all the other responses to keep fast (in a new process) without having to wait for the first (slow) one to finish.

  • Also, it now uses a base uwsgi.ini file under /etc/uwsgi/ with most of the general configurations, so, the uwsgi.ini inside /app (the one you could need to modify) is now a lot simpler.

  • 2016-04-05: Nginx and uWSGI logs are now redirected to stdout, allowing to use docker logs.

Technical details

One of the best ways to deploy a Python web application is with uWSGI and Nginx, as seen in the benchmarks.

Roughly:

  • Nginx is a web server, it takes care of the HTTP connections and also can serve static files directly and more efficiently.

  • uWSGI is an application server, that's what runs your Python code and it talks with Nginx.

  • Your Python code has the actual web application, and is run by uWSGI.

This image takes advantage of already slim and optimized existing Docker images (based on Debian as recommended by Docker) and implements Docker best practices.

It uses the official Python Docker image, installs uWSGI and on top of that, with the least amount of modifications, adds the official Nginx image (as of 2016-02-14).

And it controls all these processes with Supervisord.


There's the rule of thumb that you should have "one process per container".

That helps, for example, isolating an app and its database in different containers.

But if you want to have a "micro-services" approach you may want to have more than one process in one container if they are all related to the same "service", and you may want to include your Flask code, uWSGI and Nginx in the same container (and maybe run another container with your database).

That's the approach taken in this image.


This image has a default sample "Hello World" app in the container's /app directory using the example in the uWSGI documentation.

You probably want to override it or delete it in your project.

It is there in case you run this image by itself and not as a base image for your own Dockerfile, so that you get a sample app without errors.

License

This project is licensed under the terms of the Apache license.

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