Docker Image for FEniCS Desktop
This Docker image provides the Ubuntu Desktop environment for FEniCS.
This image runs the lightweight LXDE Windows Manager, and has FEniCS 17.1.0, Python 3.5.2 (with NumPy, SciPy, Pandas and Spyder), Jupyter Notebook, and g++-5.4 preinstalled. The X Windows will display in your web browser in full-screen mode. You can use this Docker image on 64-bit Linux, Mac or Windows.
Before you start, you need to first install Python and Docker on your computer by following the steps below.
If you use Linux or Mac, Python is most likely already installed on your computer, so you can skip this step.
If you use Windows, you need to install Python if you have not yet done so. The easiest way is to install
Miniconda, which you can download at https://repo.continuum.io/miniconda/Miniconda3-latest-Windows-x86_64.exe. During installation, make sure you check the option to make Miniconda the system's default Python.
Download the Docker Community Edition for free at https://www.docker.com/community-edition#/download and then run the installer. Note that you need administrator's privilege to install Docker. After installation, make sure you launch Docker before proceeding to the next step.
Notes for Windows Users
- Docker only supports 64-bit Windows 10 Pro or higher. If you have Windows 8 or Windows 10 Home, you need to upgrade your Windows operating system before installing Docker. Stony Brook students can get Windows 10 Education free of charge at https://stonybrook.onthehub.com. Note that the older Docker Toolbox supports older versions of Windows, but it should not be used.
- After installing Docker, you may need to restart your computer to enable virtualization and Microsoft Hyper-V. Note that you may also need to change the BIOS of your computer to enable hardware virtualization if it was not yet enabled.
- For security reasons, do not use Docker in the Administrator account, even if you are the sole user on the computer. For Docker version 17.06 or later, your Windows account must be a member of the local group “docker-users” for you to run Docker. To add your account to the group, you need to log into an Administrator account and run
Computer Management. Open up
Local Users and Groups, select
Groups, right click on
docker-usersin the list, and then click on
Add to Group...to add your username to the group.
- If you previously installed VMWare or VirtualBox on your Windows computer, they might conflict with Docker. You may get an error message stating that virtualization must be enabled when starting Docker, even though virtualization was already enabled. To resolve the issue, go to Windows Features in the Control Panel, disable Hyper-V and then re-enable it.
- When you use Docker for the first time, you must change its settings to make the C drive shared. To do this, right-click the Docker icon in the system tray, and then click on
Settings.... Go to
Shared Drivestab and check the C drive.
- Docker for Windows saves the images and data volumes in a shared public folder
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Hyper-V\Virtual Hard Disks\MobyLinuxVM.vhdx. This is a major security risk because all your images and data can be accessed and modified by other Docker users on the same computer. If you are using a shared Windows computer, make sure you create a private folder such as
C:\Users\YourUserName\Documents\Hyper-V\Virtual Hard Disksand then go to
Advancedtab in Docker Settings, and change the
Image and Volume VHD Locationto this folder.
Notes for Mac Users
- Docker Version 17.06.0-ce has a bug that causes Docker to restart when your computer wakes up from sleep and when your network settings change. As a workaround, change the Proxies setting in Docker's preferences to "No Proxy".
- On Mac, the clock in Docker would lag when your computer goes to sleep and then wakes up. You can resolve this issue either by restarting Docker after waking up or by installing sync-docker-time.
Notes for Linux Users
- Most Linux distributions have a
dockerpackage. You can use the package installer for your system to install
docker. Note that on some system (e.g., OpenSUSE), you may need to run the following commands to start up
sudo systemctl enable docker sudo systemctl start docker
- After you install Docker, make sure you add yourself to the
dockergroup. On Ubuntu, this is done by running the command:
On other systems, try the following command.
sudo adduser $USER docker
After adding yourself to the
sudo usermod -G docker -a $USER
dockergroup, you need to log out and log back in before you can use Docker.
Running the Docker Image as Jupyter-Notebook ServerTo run the Docker image, first download the script
and save it to the working directory where you will store your notebooks, codes and data. You can download the script using command line: On Windows, start
Windows PowerShell, use the
cdcommand to change to the working directory where you will store your codes and data, and then run the following command:
On Linux or Mac, start a terminal, use the
curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/unifem/fenics-desktop/master/fenics_jupyer.py -outfile fenics_jupyer.py
cdcommand to change to the working directory, and then run the following command:
curl -s -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/unifem/fenics-desktop/master/fenics_jupyer.py
After downloading the script, you can start the Docker image using the command
python fenics_jupyer.py -p
This will download and run the Docker image and then launch your default web browser to show the Jupyter Notebook page. The
-p option is optional, and it instructs the Python script to pull and update the image to the latest version.
For additional command-line options, use the command
python fenics_jupyter.py -h
Running the Docker Image with Desktop Environment
Besides using the Docker Image as a Jupyter Notebook server, you can also start it in an X-Windows desktop environment. Simply replace
fenics_desktop.py in the preceding commands. That is, on Windows use the following commands in the PowerShell:
curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/unifem/fenics-desktop/master/fenics_desktop.py -outfile fenics_desktop.py python fenics_desktop.py -p
and on Linux and Mac use the following commands in a terminal:
curl -s -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/unifem/fenics-desktop/master/fenics_desktop.py python fenics_desktop.py -p
It will automatically launch your default web browser to show the desktop. For a better experience, use VNC Viewer to connect to the Docker image.
Running the Docker Image Offline
After you have download the Docker image using the
python commands above, you can run the image offline without internet connection using the following command:
in the directory where you ran the
curl command above.
Stopping the Docker Image
To stop the Docker image, press Ctrl-C twice in the terminal (or Windows PowerShell on Windows) on your host computer where you started the Docker image, and close the tab for the desktop in your web browser.
Entering Full-Screen Mode for Desktop Environment
For the best experience, use VNC Viewer to connect to Docker image with the port and password displayed in the terminal output, which supports the full-screen mode. If you don't have the VNC viewer, you can
also use the full-screen mode in a web browser.
When using a web browser, we recommend Google Chrome or Chromium browser, which have the same user interface. On Windows or Linux, you can enter full-screen mode by selecting the menu
View --> "Full Screen" Alternatively, open the Chrome menu (the three vertical dots at the top right) and select the square to the far right of the Zoom buttons (the "+" and "-" buttons). To exit the full-screen mode, press the
F11 key. On Mac, it behaves similarly except that the menu item is named
Enter Full Screen instead of
Full Screen, and the keyboard shortcut is
Ctrl-Cmd-f instead of
F11. You can also click on the green circle at the top-left corner of Google Chrome to enter and exit the full-screen mode. Note that in the full-screen mode, you need to disable
Always Show Toolbar in Full Screen under the
View menu of
Google Chrome, and you can reveal the menu and the toolbar by sliding your mouse to the top of the display.
Alternatively, you can also use the "native" browsers on different platforms.
- On Windows, you can use the native browser Microsoft Edge. Toggle on and off the full-screen mode by pressing Win+Shift+Enter (hold down the Windows and Shift keys and press Enter).
- On Mac, you can use the native browser Safari, for which you can toggle the full-screen mode by clicking on the green circle at the top-left corner of Safari or selecting the
View --> "Enter Full Screen"menu. To exit the full-screen mode, press
Ctrl-Cmd-f, or slide your mouse to the top of the display to enable the menus.
- On Linux, the default browser Firefox does not hide its address bar in its native full-screen mode. You are recommended to use Google Chrome or Chromium browser instead. However, you can use Firefox for a full-screen viewing mode by clicking on the
Fullscreenbutton in the left sidebar of Docker desktop environment. However, this is not recommended for day-to-day use, because Firefox would exit this full-screen mode whenever you press
Esc, which may happen quite often.
If your Docker desktop environment started automatically in a non-recommended browser, you can copy and paste the URL into a recommended browser.
Tips and Tricks
- By default, Docker uses two CPU cores and 2GB of memory on Mac and Windows. If you want to run large jobs, you can increase the amount of memory or the number of cores dedicated to Docker. Just click on the Docker icon in the system tray, select
Preferencesfor Mac) and then select the
Advancedtab to adjust the settings.
- When using the Docker desktop, the files under
$HOME/sharedand any other
directory that you might have mounted explicitly are persistent. Any change to files in other directories will be lost when the Docker container stops. Use
$HOME/.configto store the configuration files of the desktop environment.
$HOME/sharedmaps to the working directory on the host, and you are recommended to use it or a mounted project directory to store codes and data.
$HOME/.sshdirectory in the Docker container maps to the
.sshdirectory on your host computer. This is particularly convenient for you to use your ssh-keys for authentications with git repositories (such as github or bitbucket). To use your ssh keys, run the
ssh-addin a terminal to add your keys to the ssh-agent.
- You can copy and paste between the host and the Docker desktop through the
Clipboardbox in the left toolbar, which is synced automatically with the clipboard of the Docker desktop. To copy from the Docker desktop to the host, first, select the text in the Docker desktop, and then go to the
Clipboardbox to copy. To copy from host to the Docker desktop, first, paste the text into the
Clipboardbox, and then paste the text in the Docker desktop.
- To stop the Docker container, do not just close the browser window, because the Docker container would still be running in the background. Instead, you can stop the container using one of the following approaches:
- Use the
logoutbutton in the lower-left corner of the Docker desktop,
- Press Ctrl-C twice in the terminal where you started the python script, or
- Run the command
docker stop <Container ID>in a terminal on the host, and you can find the
Container IDusing the
docker ps -acommand.
- Use the