Run Consul either as a single node or cluster, built on an Alpine base image to keep it tiny.
Launch a container configured to run as a single Consul node using the following;
docker run -d -p "8400:8400" -p "8500:8500" -h "consul" russmckendrick/consul
This will launch the consul with the command below;
consul agent -data-dir /data -server -bootstrap-expect 1 -ui-dir /ui -client=0.0.0.0
If you would like to run a Consul cluster, then see this blog post for full instructions.